Yohimbe is a plant found in most parts of western and central Africa. It has been found to contain properties that may assist in the effective management of erectile dysfunction, arthritis, low libido and much more. Also, it has been found to be useful in enhancing blood circulation, supporting weight loss, improving memory, and increasing endurance amongst other things.
If you are looking to gain any of these benefits through supplementation, read below to get a detailed breakdown of how yohimbe works and how to use it for the best result.
If you are suffering from low libido, hormonal imbalances, or Erectile Dysfunction, the Yohimbe supplement comes to your rescue. Unfortunately, these are the problems that haunt every man, sooner or later. Luckily for you, apart from the alternative medicine techniques, there are some traditional ones that you can try as well, and while you are at it, you might want to start with trying Yohimbe!
We know that choosing a supplement for sexual issues comes as a daunting task on its own. But, if you are looking for a herbal supplement that helps you with ED, anxiety or endurance, Yohimbe may be for you.
In this guide, you will learn what Yohimbe is, what are its benefits, recommended dosage, and a buying guide. All that you have to do is follow us and we will guide you in the world of Yohimbe and all of its beneficial effects and more that you simply have to know about!
What is Yohimbe?
Yohimbe is an evergreen tree native to the soils of central and western Africa. Its bark is known to contain a chemical called yohimbine.Pausinystalia johimbe (n. d.). Retrieved from http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Pausinystalia+johimbe
Yohimbe tree is among the five Pausinystalia evergreen species. These trees grow about 30 meters in height, along with straight boles that are about 50 to 60cm in diameter.
The bark of Yohimbe is grey to reddish-brown in color. It features longitudinal fissures that are easy to peel and bitter in taste, while the inner bark is fibrous and pinkish in color.Pausinystalia johimbe (n. d.). Retrieved from http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Pausinystalia+johimbe
Its sapwood is yellowish in color while its heartwood is ochre-yellow. The wood itself is fine-grained, dense, and moderately hard.
The leaves of the tree spread out in groups of three, having short petioles about 2cm in size. Its blades are oval in shape, about 11 to 47cm in length and 5 to 17cm in width.Pausinystalia johimbe (n. d.). Retrieved from http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Pausinystalia+johimbe
The wood and bark of the Yohimbe tree are commonly used for firewood and construction. Commercially, they also undergo extractions to make tinctures and other supplements used in traditional medicine.
What Are The Components of Yohimbe? (Composition)
Yohimbe contains an active phytochemical called yohimbine. It also contains different alkaloids. These alkaloids include corynanthine and raubasine.Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392
How Yohimbe Works
The active ingredient found in Yohimbe extract is called yohimbine. Yohimbine is an indole alkylamine alkaloid, which is known to have over 4,000 different compounds.Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392
Yohimbine works by blocking presynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. The mechanism of these receptors resemble that of reserpine, but relatively weaker and shorter in duration.Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392
Yohimbine also poses peripheral autonomic nervous system effects. It specifically increases parasympathetic (cholinergic) activities while it decreases sympathetic (adrenergic) activities.Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392
In terms of male health, yohimbine encourages the properties that relate to erection by stimulating cholinergic activities. This increases penile inflow and reduces outflow.Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392Yohimbine also possesses a mild anti-diuretic property, which happens via stimulating the hypothalamic center and releasing of the posterior pituitary hormone.Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392
Yohimbe has been traditionally used as a natural aphrodisiac, but that is not all that this supplement has to offer you. In fact, according to a scientific research published in the Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Yohimbine, which is an active compound extracted from the tree bark of the Yohimbe tree and which is the one that is being used and has all of the beneficial effects of Yohimbe, has been actually used way longer to treat the sexual dysfunctions than Viagra! Tam S. W., Worcel, M., & Wyllie, M. (2001). Yohimbine: A clinical review. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 91(3):215-43. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11744068
Commonly used to treat Erectile Dysfunction, it has also become a growing trend among the bodybuilders to help with fat loss. Riley, A. J. (1994). Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder. The British Journal of Clinical Practice, 48(3):133-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8031688 There are some Yohimbe supplements that consist of yohimbine as an active ingredient, while others list yohimbine hydrochloride as an active one.
Before you choose the supplement for you, learn more about the composition of the ingredient and consult your physician. You have to understand that choosing and starting a treatment with a herbal supplement is not an easy thing to do. This process requires time, patience and a lot of research on the matter. Although we are only talking about a herbal supplement for which you do not require a doctor’s prescription, it is always a good idea to seek your doctor’s medical and professional opinion on the matter before you proceed towards using any herbal supplement really.
Benefits of Yohimbe
It Treats Erectile Dysfunction
Yohimbe is used as an aphrodisiac and is being investigated for the treatment of organic impotence and diabetes. In fact, we already mentioned Yohimbe’s abilities to treat low testosterone levels and common sexual disorders, focusing on Erectile dysfunction in the introduction part of today’s post.
It plays an important role in improving erections and promotes the release of nitric oxide, Ajayi, A. A., Newaz, M., Hercule, H., Saleh, M., Bode, C. O., & Oyekan, A. O. (2003). Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 25(10):817-22. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14735230 which leads to the dilation of blood vessels and an increase in blood flow to sexual organs. In fact, a scientific research has found Yohimbe to serve as a highly more effective treatment than placebo in the battle against the symptoms of Erectile dysfunction when these two common treatment methods were investigated and compared. Ernest E. & Pittler M. H. (1998). Yohimbe for erectile dysfunction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. The Journal of Urology, 159(2):433-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9649257
Yohimbe Helps With Weight Loss
The ability of this herb to block the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in the fat cells leads to weight loss or increased fat loss. It is also known to speed up the metabolism, improve the workout performance that helps you to lose the stubborn fat faster. This supplement comes as more effective when combined with other supplements like Synephrine and Caffeine.
In fact, it has been considered that taking Yohimbe supplement before or even during your exercise will increase the fat breakdown. And that is not all – Yohimbe has been also reported to be able to reduce the appetite in obese mice. Callahan, M. F., Beales, M., & Oltmans G.A. (1984). Yohimbine and rauwolscine reduce food intake of genetically obese (obob) and lean mice. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 20(4):591-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6145164 However, because it has been reported that the use of Yohimbe causes some harsh side-effects, its use in the treatment of Erectile dysfunction is yet not approved. If you are thinking about using Yohimbe to help you aid from Erectile dysfunction, please do consider talking to a doctor first.
As we get older, we are struggling with keeping our focus sharp and our memory untouched. Often, we do require the help in the form of a herbal supplement to guide us through these paths. So why not use the beneficial effects that Yohimbe has to offer you to improve your long-term and short-term memory with long-lasting effects? Yes, Yohimbine has been confirmed to being able to improve the long-term memory, although we can only lean on animal studies for now. O’Carroll, R. E., Drysdale, E., Cahill, L., Shajahan, P., & Ebmeier, K. P. (1999). Stimulation of the noradrenergic system enhances and blockades reduces memory for emotional material in men. Psychological Medicine, 29(5):1083-8. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576300
Boosts Endurance Levels
Yohimbe supplement improves focus, stamina, circulation during exercise. The bark of this herb supports the body’s ability to use stored fat cell for energy. Moreover, it contains alpha-2 blocking agents that trigger adrenaline and norepinephrine in the body during physical exertion.
It May Treat Arthritis
Good news for anyone who might be suffering from Arthritis, especially Rheumatoid arthritis which is one of the three most common types – Yohimbe might be able to treat your symptoms of Arthritis! A scientific report found Yohimbe to be an effective agent able to reduce the present inflammation in the affected joints and prevent further joint damage, all while it increased the number of antioxidants in the bodies of mice. Neha, Ansari, M. M., & Khan, H. A. (2017). Yohimbe hydrochloride ameliorates collagen type-II-induced arthritis targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in Wistar rats. Environmental Toxicology, 32(2):619-629. doi: 10.1002/tox.22264 Of course, more human studies have to be elaborated on the topic before this herbal remedy is approved the serve as a valid treatment for Arthritis patients. But there is no harm in trying if it is approved by your doctor, that is!
Enhances Blood Circulation
If you are suffering from slow healing rates, cloudiness or low energy levels, the chances are that your blood circulation is not up to the optimum level. Yohimbe is a good vasodilator as it may expands the blood vessels and helps improve the blood flow to provide oxygen and necessary nutrients to cells. Lee, S. R., Schriefer, J. M., Gunnels, T. A., Harvey, I. C., & Bloomer, R. J. (2013). Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects. Lipids in Health and Disease, 12:148. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-12-148
How Does Yohimbe Work?
Yohimbe contains a chemical compound known as yohimbine that is known to increase nerve impulses and blood flow in the sexual organs of both men and women.
It works by blocking the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors as these receptors play an important role in inhibiting the erections.
This herb promotes the release of nitric oxide that could lead the dilation of blood vessels. It is also known to counteract the sexual side effects of certain medicines that are used for stress and depression.
For weight loss, it works by increasing the adrenaline levels in the body, as well as initiating a regulatory process in fat cells that suppress the fat burning cells. Apart from this, its subset yohimbine is a fat burning compound that is primarily used to lose fat during a short-term fast. It is recommended to be taken in the fasted state because its effects are partially negated by the intake of food.
Efficacy Of Yohimbe
Yohimbe extract is a beneficial natural substance that is derived from the inner bark of the Yohimbe tree and has shown to work for various health-related issues like to dilate the blood vessels; promote sexual performance; boost in libido and stimulation of weight loss.
While the studies are still being conducted for its efficacy of Yohimbe extract, here are some case studies that show its effects on the non-organic erectile dysfunction and erectile dysfunction.
Yohimbe Case Studies
Case Study 1 – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes Of Health (1997)
Double-blind, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy trial with yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of nonorganic erectile dysfunction
These double-blind placebo-controlled trials of yohimbine hydrochloride had 86 patients with ED that came up without any psychological cause. Vogt, H. J., Brandl, P., Kockott, G., Schmitz, J. R., Wiegand, M. H., Schadrack, J., & Gierend, M. (1997). Double-blind, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy trial with yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of nonorganic erectile dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, 9(3):155-61. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Double-blind%2C+placebo-controlled+safety+and+efficacy+trial+with+yohimbine+hydrochloride+in+the+treatment+of+nonorganic+erectile+dysfunction 85 of these patients were considered for the safety, while 83 were held with the intention to treat analysis. During the research, Yohimbine was administered orally with a dosage of 30 mg per day for eight weeks. After the final evaluation of eight weeks, the patients were checked on both objective and subjective criteria. The subjective criteria included improvement in sexual satisfaction, desire, and the frequency of sexual contacts. An objective criterion was based on the penile rigidity that is determined by the use of polysomnography. After the evaluation, Yohimbe was found quite effective as a comparison to placebo. The rate of effects was 71% to 45%. There were only 7% of patients that had fair tolerance, and the experiences were mild.
Case Study 2 – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes Of Health (2010)
Efficacy and Safety of Oral Combination of Yohimbine and L-arginine (SX) for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.
The objective of this study was to access the effectiveness and safety of SX for Erectile Dysfunction. Akhondzadeh, S., Amiri, A., & Bagheri, A. H. (2010). Efficacy and Safety of Oral Combination of Yohimbine and L-arginine (SX) for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 5(1):1-3. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Efficacy+and+Safety+of+Oral+Combination+of+Yohimbine+and+L-arginine+(SX)+for+the+Treatment+of+Erectile+Dysfunction
It was a 4-week trial double-blind study of a group of patients with the mild to moderate ED. Forty male patients with the Erectile Dysfunction were screened for the study, who were from the age group 25-50 and had a three-month history of ED. The severity of ED was based on EF domain scores on the international index of erectile functioning. Now the patients were randomized on receiving one capsule of SX and placebo on the demand of 1:1 ratio using a code. When the results were observed after 4 weeks, just for adverse events were observed over the study.
So the study indicates that SX, i.e. a combination of Yohimbe is safe and effective for the treatment of ED, at least in the short term.
How To Take Yohimbe?
The recommended dosage for Yohimbe is 6 mg three times a day. Mean dosage of 0.4 mg/kg body weight or 30 mg daily and a maximum of 50 mg have been used in various erectile dysfunction studies. For weight loss, dosages of 0.2 mg/kg body weight have been successfully used to increase the fat burning process without the adverse effects on various parameters like blood pressure and heart rate. According to this, the recommended dosage for weight loss comes as:
- 14 mg for a 150lb person
- 18 mg for a 20lb person
- 22 mg for a 250 lb person
But if you have a higher body weight than this, your cardiovascular system may not be able to handle a stimulatory agent such as Yohimbe.
Whenever you start with Yohimbe, make sure you start with a half dose and then assess the tolerance of supplement before continuing. Moreover, if you plan to pair Yohimbe with the stimulatory agents; make sure you try their half doses as the two supplements can interact negatively.
Interactions and Contraindications
You should not consume Yohimbe if you are:
- Pregnant: Yohimbe is unsafe for pregnant women as it might affect the uterus or might endanger your pregnancy. You should also not consume this supplement if you are breastfeeding. Please consult your doctor in case you are currently pregnant or breastfeeding and thinking of using this herbal supplement.
- Suffering from PTSD: Don’t use Yohimbe if you have PTSD as it might worsen your health symptoms.
- Suffering from blood pressure issues: Consumption of small amounts of Yohimbe may increase blood pressure, while large amounts may cause low pressure.
- Surgical patient: Yohimbe simply increases the risk of bleeding. You should stop consuming Yohimbe at least two weeks before the surgery.
- Taking any other medications at the moment: Unfortunately, it is unknown whether or not Yohimbe interacts with other medications and if yes, in which way. If you are taking any other medications at the moment please do consult your doctor about it before you proceed towards using Yohimbe for any reason.
Yohimbe Side Effects
Adverse events or side effects when taking Yohimbe are usually mild. The possible side effects caused by heavy doses of Yohimbine are:
- Upset stomach
- Sleep problems
- Racing heartbeat
- A headache
- Nausea and Vomits
- High blood pressure
- Allergic reactions
The other problems caused by the heavy doses are difficulty in breathing, low blood pressure, and other heart problems. It is important to notify your doctor if you experience any of the previously mentioned side-effects. Some of these side-effects are more severe than others and might put your life in danger. In case you experience any of these side-effects, please discontinue your use of Yohimbe and consult your doctor on the topic.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Yohimbe?
Known as Yohimbehe and Yohimbine, it is a type of evergreen tree that is used as an aphrodisiac, a treatment for impotence, and an endurance enhancer. Moreover, it is an active compound that is found in the bark of Yohimbe that is equipped with physiological and stimulant effects.
How do I take Yohimbe?
The recommended dosage for Yohimbe is 0.2 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. It should be taken on an empty stomach immediately after waking up or in-between the meals as it ramps up fat oxidation without causing the undesirable side effects. Furthermore, you can also consume Yohimbe an hour or two before activity. If you have a sensitivity to the herb, take half. However, you should consult your physician if you are under any kind of medical supervision.
How does Yohimbe work?
Yohimbe along with its subset Yohimbine is the fat burning compounds, which are primarily used during short-term fasting. It works by increasing adrenaline levels in your body, as well as inhibiting the regulatory process in the fat cells that enhance the process of burning fat. Moreover, it works by blocking the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors as these receptors play an important role in inhibiting the erections.
This herb is also known to release the Nitric Oxide that could lead the dilation of blood vessels and counteracting the sexual side effects of certain medicines that are used for stress and depression.
Is Yohimbe an ED pill?
No. But the bark extract from the Yohimbe acts as a dietary supplement, which is claimed to help with erectile dysfunction (ED). If you do have any problems with Erectile dysfunction, it might be a good idea to try this herbal supplement. Of course, we encourage all of our readers to consult their doctors first
What are the benefits of Yohimbe?
The benefits of Yohimbe include-
- Treats erectile dysfunction
- Helps with weight loss
- Reduce hypertension
- Enhances endurance
- Treats dry mouth
- Boosts circulation
Can I take Yohimbe with other medications such as diabetes, cholesterol, and high blood pressure?
We cannot give you medical advice regarding your current medication and Yohimbe. If you are taking any kind of medications, we recommend consulting your doctor as some of the prescription drugs can interact with it.
Can Yohimbe help me with weight loss?
Yes. Yohimbe helps you with weight loss because it increases adrenaline levels in the blood and blocks these alpha two receptors, which increases the fat burning system. Moreover, it also increases the flow of blood to the skin’s surface and upper, lower extremities of the body.
What are the side effects of Yohimbe?
There are no side effects of Yohimbe if consumed moderately. But if you exceed its recommended consumption, the various side effects that you can face are sleep problems, dizziness, high BP, racing heartbeat, bloating, nausea, and vomits.
Is Yohimbe vegetarian safe?
For how long do I need to take Yohimbe?
If you are using Yohimbine HCL, you won’t see much of the effects if you are already quite lean. If you are looking for best results, make sure you consume it for at least 8-10 weeks.
Where is Yohimbe produced?
Yohimbe is derived from the bark of the Pausinystalia yohimbe tree in Central Africa. It has an active chemical known as alkaloid that is found in bark and is cultivated into the supplement form.
Do I need a doctor’s prescription to take Yohimbe?
No. Yohimbe is a natural supplement so you can buy it without the doctor’s prescription. But when it comes to dosage, it is recommended to consult your doctor.
Is Yohimbe suitable for women?
Yes. The benefits of Yohimbe for women include weight loss and improvement in libido. Yohimbe is suitable for both men and women as both sex groups can benefit from their use of Yohimbe. Based on a few types of research, the recommended dosage for Yohimbe is four to six grams of yohimbine HCL, three to four times a day.
Is there a chance that I won’t experience its benefits from Yohimbe?
Yes, there is a chance that you won’t experience any benefits with Yohimbe. It is just not a miracle herb, and neither has it guaranteed you to give great physiques. If you are consuming Yohimbe, here is what you can expect from regular supplementation. The decrease in appetite, increase in energy, or an increase in metabolism. In case, if you are not experiencing any effects, try pairing it up with the fasted routines for best results.
Is there anything that I should take apart from Yohimbe?
While Yohimbe helps you to boost your T-levels naturally, you can also do other things to boost your testosterone even more. We advise you to try a combination of Yohimbe and several lifestyle changes that are reported to work when it comes to increasing testosterone levels. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, avoiding bad habits such as smoking, drinking and using drugs, getting enough sleep and reducing your stress levels will help you in your battle against low testosterone levels.
Yohimbe recommended for a healthy young man?
Yohimbe helps you with ED, enhances endurance, and is best to maintain your overall well-being. However, the best advantages are found in older males because who are facing ED issues or other sexual problems.
Can people with diabetes use Yohimbe?
No. the consumption of Yohimbe may cause to lower down the blood sugar by interfering with insulin or other medications that are used to control diabetes.
Do you sell Yohimbe in any other form than capsules?
Not at the moment, but you can contact us and let us know you’re interested in it.
Yohimbine hydrochloride is a standardized form of Yohimbe and the active ingredient that is found in various ED drugs. If Yohimbe supplement is not labeled as natural, it is likely to be yohimbine hydrochloride.
Before you buy Yohimbe, here are some things you should know:
- According to various studies, it has been found that different Yohimbe commercial supplements contain 0.1 to 489 ppm yohimbine.
- The supplements contain lower than stated dosage while buying the higher one could result in serious side effects.
- Moreover, there have been various supplements that claim to contain botanical extract but contains man-made extract.
- Due to the increasing popularity of this supplement, there are various manufacturers that use pharmaceutical grade synthetic yohimbine as an ingredient instead of the yohimbe bark extract.
- To get the best of advantages of this supplement, it is important that you should purchase these supplements from CGMP compliant manufacturers to ensure that the supplement is of optimum quality.
Today we got to discuss yet another great herbal supplement – Yohimbe! This natural supplement has the abilities to aid numerous different health issues – from Arthritis, Erectile dysfunction, low testosterone levels and all of the symptoms and complications that come with it, to enhance your cognitive functions and weight loss – it seems as if Yohimbe has the power to conquer them all. We gladly recommend all of our readers to take the time and experience all of the beneficial effects that come with your use of Yohimbe and improve their lives in no time for sure!
References [ + ]
|1, 2, 3.||↑||Pausinystalia johimbe (n. d.). Retrieved from http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Pausinystalia+johimbe|
|4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.||↑||Yohimbine. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB01392|
|10.||↑||Tam S. W., Worcel, M., & Wyllie, M. (2001). Yohimbine: A clinical review. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 91(3):215-43. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11744068|
|11.||↑||Riley, A. J. (1994). Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder. The British Journal of Clinical Practice, 48(3):133-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8031688|
|12.||↑||Ajayi, A. A., Newaz, M., Hercule, H., Saleh, M., Bode, C. O., & Oyekan, A. O. (2003). Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 25(10):817-22. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14735230|
|13.||↑||Ernest E. & Pittler M. H. (1998). Yohimbe for erectile dysfunction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. The Journal of Urology, 159(2):433-6. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9649257|
|14.||↑||Callahan, M. F., Beales, M., & Oltmans G.A. (1984). Yohimbine and rauwolscine reduce food intake of genetically obese (obob) and lean mice. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 20(4):591-9. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6145164|
|15.||↑||O’Carroll, R. E., Drysdale, E., Cahill, L., Shajahan, P., & Ebmeier, K. P. (1999). Stimulation of the noradrenergic system enhances and blockades reduces memory for emotional material in men. Psychological Medicine, 29(5):1083-8. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576300|
|16.||↑||Neha, Ansari, M. M., & Khan, H. A. (2017). Yohimbe hydrochloride ameliorates collagen type-II-induced arthritis targeting oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in Wistar rats. Environmental Toxicology, 32(2):619-629. doi: 10.1002/tox.22264|
|17.||↑||Lee, S. R., Schriefer, J. M., Gunnels, T. A., Harvey, I. C., & Bloomer, R. J. (2013). Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects. Lipids in Health and Disease, 12:148. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-12-148|
|18.||↑||Vogt, H. J., Brandl, P., Kockott, G., Schmitz, J. R., Wiegand, M. H., Schadrack, J., & Gierend, M. (1997). Double-blind, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy trial with yohimbine hydrochloride in the treatment of nonorganic erectile dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, 9(3):155-61. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Double-blind%2C+placebo-controlled+safety+and+efficacy+trial+with+yohimbine+hydrochloride+in+the+treatment+of+nonorganic+erectile+dysfunction|
|19.||↑||Akhondzadeh, S., Amiri, A., & Bagheri, A. H. (2010). Efficacy and Safety of Oral Combination of Yohimbine and L-arginine (SX) for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 5(1):1-3. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Efficacy+and+Safety+of+Oral+Combination+of+Yohimbine+and+L-arginine+(SX)+for+the+Treatment+of+Erectile+Dysfunction|