Research and Clinical Trials
Numerous scientific and clinical studies has been carried out to probe the efficacy of Tongkat Ali to increase testosterone levels. As you may notice, there are far more animal studies (specially in mice) than human studies. Mice models are generally used because of their similarity to humans, and this poses many advantages for researchers, to name a few: evaluating possible side effects before their use in humans, ability to control their environment (to isolate the effect of the substance), more flexibility to take and analyse samples and much cheaper cost. These are the reasons why research in animal models is done before human models and tend to be more abundant. However, in some cases the results in animal models doesn’t translate to humans very well, this is the reason why animal models provide a very good reference but you will want to see the actual results in humans before drawing any conclusions.
Here I have compiled the most relevant studies, starting with the ones in humans. More and more evidence in humans is becoming available as researches are starting to see the powerful effect of tongkat ali to increase testosterone levels in men and woman. Some studies are currently being developed, and I will try my best to update this page as they become available. I have also included some relevant studies in rats so you can have an idea of tongkat ali’s effect in mammals in general, which may also apply to humans. I have included the abstract of the publications, with the main findings and important information highlighted like this, make sure to pay attention to these bits of information. It is also important to notice that there is a growing body of research of tongkat ali and its use for treating osteoporosis induced by testosterone deficiency, some cancer types and plasmodium, but I won’t include any of these here.
Research in Humans
2013 , June 11
TONGKAT ALI AS A POTENTIAL HERBAL SUPPLEMENT FOR PHYSICALLY ACTIVE MALE AND FEMALE SENIORS-A PILOT STUDY
Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males’ symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
2013 May 26
EFFECT OF TONGKAT ALI ON STRESS HORMONES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MOOD STATE IN MODERATELY STRESSED SUBJECTS.
Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and “Malaysian ginseng.” TA roots are a traditional “anti-aging” remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being.
We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p < 0.05 was used to determine differences between groups.
Significant improvements were found in the TA group for Tension (-11%), Anger (-12%), and Confusion (-15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (-16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%).
These results indicate that daily supplementation with tongkat ali root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood state parameters, suggesting that this “ancient” remedy may be an effective approach to shielding the body from the detrimental effects of “modern” chronic stress, which may include general day-to-day stress, as well as the stress of dieting, sleep deprivation, and exercise training.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
2012 , November 1
RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL ON THE USE OF PHYSTA FREEZE-DRIED WATER EXTRACT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND SEXUAL WELL-BEING IN MEN.
Eurycoma longifolia is reputed as an aphrodisiac and remedy for decreased male libido. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study was carried out to investigate the clinical evidence of E. longifolia in men. The 12-week study in 109 men between 30 and 55 years of age consisted of either treatment of 300 mg of water extract of E. longifolia (Physta) or placebo. Primary endpoints were the Quality of Life investigated by SF-36 questionnaire and Sexual Well-Being investigated by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Sexual Health Questionnaires (SHQ); Seminal Fluid Analysis (SFA), fat mass and safety profiles. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to compare changes in the endpoints. The E. longifolia (EL) group significantly improved in the domain Physical Functioning of SF-36, from baseline to week 12 compared to placebo (P = 0.006) and in between group at week 12 (P = 0.028). The EL group showed higher scores in the overall Erectile Function domain in IIEF (P < 0.001), sexual libido (14% by week 12), SFA- with sperm motility at 44.4%, and semen volume at 18.2% at the end of treatment. Subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) significantly improved in fat mass lost (P = 0.008). All safety parameters were comparable to placebo.
2012 , June 15
STANDARDISED WATER-SOLUBLE EXTRACT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA, TONGKAT ALI, AS TESTOSTERONE BOOSTER FOR MANAGING MEN WITH LATE-ONSET HYPOGONADISM?
In most countries, millions of people are relying on herbal medicines as remedy for numerous ailments. In South-East Asia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, also known as ‘Malaysian ginseng’ or Tongkat ali, is used to combat stress and disease and to improve physical strength. Moreover, the compounds of the roots of this plant are reported to have aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects in the rat. Considering that human studies are not available, 76 of 320 patients suffering from late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) were given 200 mg of a standardised water-soluble extract of Tongkat ali for 1 month. The Ageing Males’ Symptoms (AMS) according to the standardised rating scale and the serum testosterone concentration were taken. Results show that treatment of LOH patients with this Tongkat ali extract significantly (P < 0.0001) improved the AMS score as well as the serum testosterone concentration. While before treatment only 10.5% of the patients did not show any complaint according to the AMS scale and 35.5% had normal testosterone levels, after the completed treatment 71.7% and 90.8% of the patients showed normal values, respectively. Thus, Tongkat ali extract appears to be useful as a supplement in overcoming the symptoms of LOH and for the management of hypogonadism.
Asian Journal of Andrology
2010 , March 29
EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK IN MANAGING IDIOPATHIC MALE INFERTILITY.
This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies.
British Journal of Sports Medicine
THE ERGOGENIC EFFECTS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK: A PILOT STUDY
Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), which contains quassinoids such as eurycomalacton, eurycomanon, and eurycomanol, has been reported to have aphrodisiac properties and to increase testosterone levels in men.1 Previous studies have established that the testosterone supplementation increases fat free mass, muscle strength, and muscle mass, which are important for physical function and athletic performance.2,3 Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the increase in testosterone levels, obtained by administration of ELJ, on body composition and muscle strength and size in man. Fourteen healthy men performed an intense strength training programme with initial load of 60% RM (2 sets of 10 repetitions with 1 minute rest between, for 10 stations) on alternate days for five weeks. Simultaneously, seven men were randomly selected to consume 100 mg/day ELJ water soluble extract, and seven men received placebo. The intensity of the exercise was increased by 10% RM/week. Body composition, arm circumference, one repetition maximum (1 RM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) activity were measured and recorded one day before and after the five weeks of supplementation and intervention. The lean body mass of the treatment group showed a significant increment, from 52.26 (7.18) kg to 54.39 (7.43) kg (p = 0.012), but no significant changes in fat free mass were observed in the placebo group. Percentage body fat was significantly decreased in the treatment and placebo group, from 31.30 (5.48)% to 28.44 (6.43)% (p = 0.01) and from 22.83 (2.43)% to 21.33 (2.35)% (p = 0.001) respectively. The 1RM test showed a significant increase from 73.71 (16.63) to 78.71 (17.0) kg (p = 0.006) in the treatment group and from 77.29 (8.9) to 79.43 (8.8) kg (p = 0.011) in the placebo group. The increase in strength in the treatment group was larger than in the placebo group (6.78% and 2.77% respectively). The mean frequency of sEMG on the biceps in the treatment and placebo groups decreased significantly, from 121.77 (40.0) to 90.47 (64.6) μV (p = 0.012) and from 127.95 (30.9) to 98.8 (50.1) μV (p = 0.036) respectively. The treatment produced 2.92% greater reduction in electrical activity of the muscle measured at the end of the experiment compared with placebo. The mean arm circumference of the treatment group increased significantly by 1.8 cm after the supplementation, from 30.87 (1.88) to 32.67 (1.96) cm (p = 0.011), but there was no significant increase in the placebo group. The results suggest that water soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack increased fat free mass, reduced body fat, and increased muscle strength and size, and thus may have an ergogenic effect. Further investigations are warranted.
Research in Animal Models
2013, March 6.
In vivo effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) extract on reproductive functions in the rat.
An aqueous extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) roots is traditionally used to enhance male sexuality. Because previous studies are limited to only few sperm parameters or testosterone concentration, this study investigated the in vivo effects of TA on body and organ weight as well as functional sperm parameters in terms of safety and efficacy in the management of male infertility. Forty-two male rats were divided into a control, low-dose (200 mg kg-1 BW) and high-dose (800 mg kg-1 BW) group (n = 14). Rats were force-fed for 14 days and then sacrificed. Total body and organ weights of the prostate, testes, epididymides, gastrocnemius muscle and the omentum were recorded. Moreover, testosterone concentration, sperm concentration, motility, velocity, vitality, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed. Whilst TA decreased BW by 5.7% (P = 0.0276) and omentum fat by 31.9% (P = 0.0496), no changes in organ weights were found for the prostate, testes and epididymides. Testosterone concentration increased by 30.2% (P = 0.0544). Muscle weight also increased, yet not significantly. Whilst sperm concentration, total and progressive motility and vitality increased significantly, MMP improved markedly (P = 0.0765) by 25.1%. Because no detrimental effect could be observed, TA appears safe for possible treatment of male infertility and ageing male problems.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
2009 November 12
Influence of Eurycoma longifolia on the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The root of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, native to South East Asia, has long been used as a male aphrodisiac remedy to treat sexual disorders. In the study we evaluated the influence of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual behavior (including both motivation and copulatory performance) of sexually sluggish and impotent male rats.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The root powder of the plant was orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, classified as sexually sluggish or impotent taking in account their behavior in pre-experimental tests. Groups of 8 animals each were submitted to three different types of treatment: (1) acute at 3 dose levels (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg); (2) subacute (daily for 6 days) at the dose of 500 mg/kg and (3) subchronic (daily for 12 days) at the same dose (500 mg/kg). Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies and post-ejaculatory interval were recorded during the mating test in order to evaluate sexual performance. In addition the partner preference test was used to assess sexual motivation. Testosterone serum levels were measured in subacutely treated rats and compared with the values of controls receiving vehicle.
Concerning the copulatory activity of sexually sluggish rats, both acute (dosed at 500 and 1000 mg/kg) and subacute treatments with the root powder significantly reduced ejaculation latencies, increasing also the percentage of mounting and ejaculating animals; in addition the subacute administration reduced post-ejaculatory interval. In impotent rats both subacute and subchronic treatments increased the percentage of mounting and ejaculating rats. The motivational behavior of sluggish rats during the partner preference test was not affected by the treatments. Testosterone serum levels were increased in rats subacutely treated in comparison with controls.
Eurycoma longifolia root improved sexual performance but not motivation in sluggish rats after acute or subacute administration. The effect could be mainly ascribed to increased testosterone levels.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.
Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances sexual motivation in middle-aged male mice.
Eurycoma longifolia Jack was investigated for sexual motivation activity in adult, middle-aged male mice and in retired breeders, using the modified open field and the modified runway choice methods. Each mouse received 500 mg/kg of one of 4 fractions of E. longifolia Jack, viz. chloroform, methanol, butanol, and water, whereas the mice in the control and yohimbine groups received 3 ml/kg of normal saline and 30 mg/kg of yohimbine daily respectively for 10 d. The results show a transient increase in the percentage of male mice responding to the right choice after chronic consumption of the fractions with 50 percent of the adult middle-aged male mice treated with E. longifolia Jack and yohimbine scoring the right choice after 8 and 5 days post-treatment respectively. In conclusion, this study has shown that E. longifolia Jack continues to enhance sexual motivation in adult, middle-aged male mice and in retired breeders.
Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats.
The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the sexual qualities of middle aged male rats after dosing them with 0.5 g/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia whilst the control group received 3 ml/kg of normal saline daily for 12 weeks. Results showed than E. longifolia Jack enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats by decreasing their hesitation time as compared to controls with various fractions of E. longifolia Jack produced 865-916 (91-96), 860-914 (92-98), 850-904 (93-99), 854-890 (95-99), 844-880 (94-98), 840-875 (94-98), 830-870 (94-98), 825-860 (94-98), 820-850 (96-99), 800-840 (93-98), 750-795 (94-99) and 650-754 sec (82-95%) in contrast to controls which produced 950 (100), 934 (100), 910 (100), 900 (100), 895 (100), 890 (100), 885 (100), 880 (100), 855 (100), 860 (100), 800 (100) and 790 sec (100%) throughout the investigation period. Besides these, there was a transient increase in the % of the male rats responding to the right choice after chronic administration of 0.5 g/kg E. longifolia Jack, with more than 50% of the male rats scored right choice after 2 weeks post-treatment and the effect was more prominent at the dose of the observation period. However, there was no sexual enhancement of the middle aged male rats which consumed normal saline since only 45-55% of the male rats responded to right choice throughout the investigation period. Hence, this study shows that E. longifolia Jack enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats, further supports the folkuse of E. longifolia Jack as an aphrodisiac.
Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on libido in middle-aged male rats.
The effect of increasing doses of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extracts on libido was examined in middle-aged male rats. The results showed that a high dose (800 mg/kg) of all E. longifolia Jack extracts significantly increased mount frequency (MF) (P < 0.05) over that of untreated controls, but had no effect on the frequency of intromission or ejaculation. Methanol, chloroform, water, and butanol fractions exhibited MF of 2.5 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.3, 2.5 +/- 0.1 and 2.6 +/- 0.2, respectively, in adult, middle-aged male rats, and retired breeders versus 2.3 +/- 0.1 in untreated controls. This translated to a minor increase in MF of 8.7%, 13.0%, 8.7%, and 13.0% for these fractions, respectively, during the 20-minute observation period. The results of this study show that E. longifolia Jack extracts can increase libido in middle-aged male rats.
Archives of Pharmacal Research
Effects of Eurycoma longifolia jack on laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats.
It has been reported that Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali has gained notoreity as a symbol of man’s ego and strength by the Malaysian men because it increases male virility and sexual prowess during sexual activities. As such, the effects of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack were studied on the laevator ani muscle in both uncastrated and testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats after dosing them for 12 consecutive weeks. Results showed that 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack significantly increased (p<0.05) the leavator ani muscle to 58.56+/-1.22, 58.23+/-0.31, 60.21 +/-0.86 and 62.35 +/-0.98 mg/100 g body weight, respectively, when compared with the control (untreated) in the uncastrated intact male rats and 49.23+/-0.82, 52.23+/-0.36, 50.21+/-0.66 and 52.35+/-0.58 mg/100 g body weight, respectively, when compared to control (untreated) in the testosterone-stimulated castrated intact male rats. Hence, the pro-androgenic effect as shown by this study further supported the traditional use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Aphrodisiac evaluation in non-copulator male rats after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.
The aphrodisiac effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (0.5 g/kg) was evaluated in noncopulator male rats using an electrical cage. Fractions of E. longifolia Jack decreased the hesitation time of noncopulator male rats, throughout the investigation period. Furthermore, it possessed a transient increase in the percentage of the male rats responding to the right choice, more than 50% of the male rats scored “right choice” after 3 weeks post-treatment and the effect became more prominent after 8 weeks post-treatment (only 40-50% of the control male rats responded to the right choice) using the electrical copulation cage. Hence, this study lends further support to the use of the plant by indigenous populations as a traditional medicine for its aphrodisiac property.
Evaluation of the potency activity of aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack.
The butanol, methanol, water and chloroform extracts of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied using various tests of potency of treated male rats. The results showed that E. longifolia produced a dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the episodes of penile reflexes as evidenced by increases in quick flips, long flips and erections of the treated male rats during the 30 min observation period. These results provide further evidence that E. longifolia increases the aphrodisiac potency activity in treated animals.
Journal of Experimental Animal Science
Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) on the initiation of sexual performance of inexperienced castrated male rats.
We studied the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, on the initiation of sexual performance and the weights of sexual accessories in inexperienced castrated male rats. The doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, which were extracted from E. longifolia Jack, were orally administered to the rats twice daily for 10 days prior to the tests and continued throughout the test period. Testosterone was used as a positive control after injecting 15 mg/kg daily subcutaneously for 32 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in sexual performance of the treated animals, but the E. longifolia Jack groups showed lower sexual performance in mounting, intromission and ejaculation than the testosterone group. Further results also showed that E. longifolia Jack promoted the growth of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicles as compared with the control, but the growth of sexual accessories at 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack was less than that of testosterone treated group. The present study therefore gives further evidence of the folkuse of E. longifolia as an aphrodisiac.
Archives of Pharmacal Research
Eurycoma longifolia increases sexual motivation in sexually naive male rats.
The aim of this study is to provide evidence on the aphrodisiac property of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. An electric grid was used as an obstruction in the electrical copulation cage in order to determine how much an aversive stimulus the sexually naive male rat for both the treated with E. longifolia Jack and control groups were willing to overcome to reach the estrous receptive female in the goal cage. The intensity of the grid current was maintained at 0.12 mA and this was the intensity in which the male rats in the control group failed to crossover to reach the goal cage. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack continued to enhance and also maintain a high level of both the total number of successful crossovers, mountings, intromissions and ejaculations during the 9-12th week observation period. In conclusion, these results further enhanced and strengthened the aphrodisiac property of E. longifolia Jack.
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Eurycoma longifolia JACK and orientation activities in sexually experienced male rats.
The effects of Eurycoma longifolia JACK were studied on the orientation activities of sexually experienced male rats towards receptive females (mounting, licking, anogenital sniffing), environment (exploration, raring, climbing), themselves (genital grooming, non-genital grooming) and mobility (unrestricted, restricted) after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 10 d prior to the test. The results showed that E. longifolia JACK modified the orientation activities of the treated male rats in that they significantly displayed more frequent and vigorous mounting, licking and anogenital sniffing towards the receptive females, and it further intensified self orientation as indicated by the increased grooming of the genitals compared to the controls (p<0.05). In addition, rats treated with 800 mg/kg of methanol, water and butanol extracts of E. longifolia JACK continued to show confinement to a particular area of the cage (around the female), thus showing restriction in movement as compared to the controls (p<0.05). However, the treated males possessed a lack of interest in the external environment as indicated by a reduction in exploration, raring and climbing on the cage wall. Hence, the present study further supports the folk use of E. longifolia JACK as an aphrodisiac.
Journal of Experimental Animal Science
Eurycoma longifolia Jack enhances libido in sexually experienced male rats.
The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the libido of sexually experienced male rats after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily of different fractions of E. longifolia Jack for 10 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in mounting frequency of the treated animals with 400 mg/kg of chloroform, methanol, water and butanol fractions resulting in mounting frequencies of 5.3 +/- 1.2, 4.9 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 0.7 and 5.2 +/- 0.1, and 800 mg/kg further increased them to 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 5.3 +/- 0.2 respectively but there were no erections, intromissions, ejaculations or seminal emissions during the 20-min observation period which allowed for the measurement of sexual arousal reflected by mounting frequency uninfluenced by other behavioural components. This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of sexual arousal in sexually vigorous male rats in the absence of feedback from genital sensation.