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    How to Increase Testosterone Naturally – The Definitive Guide to Fight Low Testosterone and Andropause

    How to Increase Testosterone Naturally – The Definitive Guide to Fight Low Testosterone and Andropause

    Testosterone is an important part of every man’s life. Not only does it promote the changes needed to enter adulthood but it also maintains your muscle, mind, and body well into your old age. With all of the environmental pollutants and low-nutrient diets that men experience on a day-to-day basis, there is no other time in our history when men have lower testosterone levels. From dietary preferences to lifestyle choices, most men are causing their own testosterone levels to plummet, resulting in a wave of negative consequences. Let’s take a look at what testosterone is, why it’s important for you, and how you can increase testosterone naturally.

    Everything You Need To Know to Increase Testosterone

    What is Testosterone?

    Testosterone is a sex steroid hormone that is critical for the development of male-dominant sexual and physical characteristics. For example, testosterone plays a key role in promoting the growth of the following:

    • Deepening of the voice
    • Growth of body hair
    • Development of lean muscle tissue
    • Reduction of body fat
    • Promoting healthy sexual drive and function
    • Elevating and balancing your mood

    Although testosterone is often associated with men, it is produced in women as well. Believe it or not, women need testosterone for some of the same reasons that men do. It helps women develop strength, grow lean muscle tissue, and enhance their emotional well-being. For men, testosterone is produced in the testes while women produce it in the ovaries and adrenal glands.[1]

    The Role of Testosterone

    Once your body begins producing it in large amounts, testosterone is a hormone that is needed for your entire life cycle. During puberty, as mentioned above, testosterone is produced in massive amounts in order to trigger growth phases into adulthood. This is true for men and women. Testosterone levels are known to be higher at this point in your life, which may produce emotional hypersensitivity, acne, and male pattern baldness in young men.

    It is after puberty that testosterone begins to balance itself out. Post-puberty testosterone still has a number of responsibilities in your body including maintaining a healthy libido, muscle strength and size, and bone density.

    Symptoms of Low Testosterone

    Many men experience the symptoms of low testosterone but never consider the true cause. They may blame the weather, stress, or age. When testosterone levels are low, men may find themselves:

    • Feeling depressed/overwhelmed more often than usual
    • Gaining weight while losing lean muscle mass
    • Developing gyno-based features such as fatty deposits in the breast area (otherwise known as man-boobs)
    • Succumbing to more age-related illnesses and symptoms (e.g. – cardiovascular disease)
    • Losing all interest in sex (despite your wife’s/girlfriend’s best attempts)
    • Experiencing erectile dysfunction during sex
    • Producing a low volume of semen [2]

    What is Causing Your Low Testosterone?

    Do any of those symptoms sound familiar to you? If so, then you may be suffering from low levels of testosterone. Before learning how to increase testosterone naturally let’s take a look at some of the primary causes of low testosterone. Chances are, you may be the cause of your low testosterone levels and you aren’t even aware of it!


    • Estrogenic-based pollutants may be hard to avoid, especially if you live and work in a major city. High levels of environmental estrogens contribute to lowering testosterone levels.
    • The widespread use of laptops, cell phones, and tablets is pumping more Extremely Low-Frequency radiation into our environment than ever before. The result is a number of health-based consequences including low testosterone.
    • Soil depletion is leading to fruits and vegetables that contain far less nutritional value than at any other time in history. Nutrition is essential to maintaining high levels of testosterone.


    • The fast-paced lifestyle of the Western world does not allow time for preparing healthy, home-cooked meals. Fast food is a fast, easy, and unhealthy alternative. Too many unhealthy fats are present in fast food and not enough of the nutrients that support growth hormone production.
    • There is a focus on low-fat and fat-free dietary choices, eliminating important nutrient-dense fats. For instance, cholesterol is the building block for testosterone (I’ll discuss this more below).
    • The prevalence of sugar has dramatically increased, making itself present in nearly all processed and packaged foods. Sugar has been linked to a number of health issues including obesity and diabetes. These diseases are a foundation for low testosterone levels. [3]


    • As a whole, people are far less active. The emergence of comfort-based technology and desk-based jobs has significantly reduced the physical activity levels of most people. Growth hormones thrive during physical activity and exercise.
    • Sleep is a rare thing for the average person, robbing the individual of critical growth hormone production time and resulting in a number of potential health hazards including low testosterone levels.
    • Stress is an everyday occurrence for most individuals. Stress triggers a fight-or-flight response, elevating levels of the catabolic hormone, Cortisol, in the body. Cortisol will break down growth hormones, resulting in a low level of testosterone and other health issues such as high blood pressure.

    Benefits of Healthy Testosterone Levels

    When your testosterone levels are where they should be, you will experience a number of positive benefits including the following:

    • Higher levels of lean muscle mass
    • Reduced levels of body fat
    • Improved emotional health including a positive outlook and a well-balanced demeanor
    • Amplified sex drive, performance, and output
    • Reduced occurrence of age-related illnesses
    • Reduced risk of injury

    What’s Next? Naturally, Increase Testosterone

    Now that you know what testosterone is and why it’s important for your well-being, it’s time to learn how you can naturally boost your levels of this critical hormone.

    How to Increase Testosterone Levels – What Really Works

    If you want to increase your testosterone levels, you could visit your doctor, spend a lot of money on potentially harmful injections, and allow your body to become dependent on synthetic testosterone. Alternatively, you may take a stand and work to naturally boost your body’s very own levels of testosterone. The latter is safer, more efficient, and produces a greater feeling of satisfaction. Let’s break down how you may boost your testosterone levels into four categories with simple, easy-to-follow changes.

    Increase Testosterone through Diet

    Healthy Cholesterol

    Due to the dietary trend of going fat-free, many men have cut out cholesterol from their food choices. Recent studies show that the damnation of cholesterol may have been premature. As the building block of testosterone, cholesterol is absolutely essential for a man’s diet. [4] The catch is the type of cholesterol that you put into your diet. You will want to focus on getting healthy cholesterol from the following sources:

    • Grass-fed beef
    • Wild salmon
    • Organic milk
    • Coconut oil

    Truth be told, you will want to focus on fats as a whole. Healthy fats promote the production of growth hormones. Here are some excellent dietary fats to include in your day-to-day meals.

    • Chia seeds
    • Pumpkin seeds
    • Almond butter
    • Peanut butter

    Eat Your Vegetables

    Taking a page out of your mother’s book, you need to make sure you’re eating all of your broccoli. Cruciferous vegetables, which can be described as dark and leafy, have been shown to promote the production of testosterone. These vegetables contain a compound called Diindolylmethane, or DIM for short. DIM has been shown to encourage healthy hormone levels. It supports testosterone production by eliminating harmful estrogenic compounds. [5]

    Say Goodbye to…

    There are three important food groups that you’ll want to eliminate from your diet if you want your testosterone levels to return to normal: processed foods, sugars, and grains.

    • Processed foods are packed with a number of unhealthy additives. They are also absent of whole-food nutrition, which your body needs in order to support growth hormone production.
    • Added sugar has been the subject of much scrutiny in the last decade. Studies are linking sugar to a number of testosterone-destroying illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This is not to be confused with natural sugars found in whole foods such as fruit. The enemy is the processed sugars you find in processed drinks, snacks, and other foods.
    • The majority of store-bought bread contains wheat gluten. This added ingredient has been the subject of much debate for years now. Studies show that wheat gluten has been linked to increased levels of prolactin in the body. As it turns out, the larger the presence of prolactin, the lower your levels of testosterone. [6]
    • Put simply: It’s time to stop eating processed foods along with snacks and drinks that contain added sugar. Need a complex carbohydrate? Reach for oatmeal. Oats are a staple for testosterone-building.

    Testosterone Building Foods to Live By

    Diet is your best line of defense when you want to stop losing out on testosterone and start building massive amounts of it. The following foods should be included in your daily meal planner as they have been shown to promote the production of growth hormones.

    • Garlic
    • Turmeric
    • Citrus fruits
    • Green tea
    • Eggs
    • Ginseng
    • Steel cut oats

    If libido is a problem, don’t forget to check this extensive list of natural aphrodisiacs.

    Increase Testosterone through Supplementation

    Everywhere you look on the interwebs, you see page after page of hot women holding bottles of “miracle-worker” testosterone boosters. That devilish and seductive look in their eyes pleads with you to buy it. Buying a 6-month supply of that little bottle will result in nightly rewards (if you catch my drift). How can you say no to that? Quite easily. Click off the page.

    The supplement industry is notorious for peddling pills that they claim are just as effective and safe, if not more so, than pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceuticals! That’s like saying aspirin is more effective than morphine for a headache! There is a reason they don’t sell vials of pharmaceutical-grade testosterone at your local Walgreens: the stuff works – it works really well. So much so, that it would be dangerous without the supervision of a medical professional.

    The truth is: You’re never going to find a supplement out there that matches the efficiency of what your doctor may offer; however, that doesn’t mean every supplement is completely useless.

    When it comes to searching for a testosterone-boosting supplement, the one thing you have to look for is results. Not just “the bro” at the gym claiming he got “mad results.” No. I am talking about good ole fashioned research study results. (If you ever researched that literature paper in college, you should know what I’m talking about.) Here is a list of the top 5 researched and proven supplements that have been shown to increase testosterone levels.

    Bonus: Natural remedies for male sexual enhancement


    Tongkat ali

    No, this is not the name of a Vietnamese pimp. Tongkat Ali is a tree that is native to Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. When creating the much sought-after supplement, the root of the tree is used. Tongkat Ali is used primarily for sexual performance. How does it make things better in the bedroom? According to Cathy Wong, “Tongkat ali appears to work by increasing levels of the hormone testosterone.” (“Tongkat Ali” June 25, 2014. Para. 1) Well, how about that? Check what this research [7] has to say about it:

    Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (−16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%).

    Just in case that wasn’t enough, they even give a shout-out to former research studies:

     “Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate the release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being.”



    This herbal remedy is a rare find. Unlike many other supposed herbal t-boosters, Ashwagandha has scientific proof to back it up. In several studies, it was found to protect cells that help in the production of testosterone from oxidative damage. The result was a direct increase in testosterone levels. [8]



    This trace mineral is no joke.[9] It plays a crucial part in the growth and development of many organs and bodily functions including the kidney, pancreas, teeth, hair, skin, liver, blood cells, and prostate. It is included in many over-the-counter cold remedies and has been shown to improve symptoms of a number of diseases. All that and it boosts testosterone?!

    A study was performed to measure the effects of zinc in the following categories: plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. 37 patients with idiopathic infertility were studied and the timeline was well over five years. So what happened? Did Zinc manage to increase testosterone?

    In the first group (T less than 4.8 ng/ml; 22 patients), T and DHT rose significantly after oral administration of zinc, as did the sperm count.”[10]

    Aye, and here’s the rub: The second group (T greater than or equal to 4.8 ng/ml), on the other hand, experienced no change in their testosterone levels. Put simply: If your T is low, then increase testosterone with a zinc supplement.

    Dioscorea deltoidea

    Known as the Nepal Yam, this flower is one of many of the Dioscoreaceae family and may be found throughout the world, primarily in tropical climates. Originally used as a libido booster, many proponents of the herbal remedy claim it can boost testosterone. The facts?

     “These advantages are said to be related to the presence of the furostanolic saponins, which boost the release of luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland. The rise in luteinizing hormone in turn can help raise testosterone levels.” (“Dioscorea Deltoidea Health Benefits” January 27, 2011. Para. 3)

    The only problem is that no official studies have been completed with the supplement; however, that doesn’t mean the claims are completely off base. Furostanolic saponins are known to influence the release of luteinizing hormones and as Dr. Espinosa points out,

    Research does prove these saponins can be found in dioscorea deltoidea.” (“Dioscorea Deltoidea Health Benefits” January 27, 2011. Para. 4)

    Between the documentation that this herbal remedy contains furostanolic saponins and users of the supplement raving about it, I’d say this one is worth your time if you are serious about increasing your testosterone naturally.


    Avena Sativa

    Ever wonder why bodybuilders are always eating oatmeal? Avena sativa is just that: your basic oat. You know how healthy oats are. They are packed with fiber and protein and fitness media can’t get enough of them. So how come you’ve never heard it by this name before? The name has everything to do with how it’s processed. Unripened oat straw is sold under a number of names, Avena sativa being the most common.[11] So how do the oats stack up? According to this source:

    A graduate school in San Francisco, California discovered avena sativa (green oats) works by freeing up testosterone that gets stuck to various compounds in the body.

    Vitamin D

    Believe it or not, the numbers for vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. are staggering. The reason? People aren’t getting outside enough. Despite the bad publicity of the sun, your body needs it to utilize certain nutrients and work efficiently. Now, I’m not advocating looking like Snookie from the Jersey Shore but as Dr. Mercola points out, some sun every day is a good thing. [12]

    To get your levels into the healthy range, sun exposure is the BEST way to optimize your vitamin D levels; exposing a large amount of your skin until it turns the lightest shade of pink, as near to solar noon as possible, is typically necessary to achieve adequate vitamin D production.”

    When the sun becomes scarce due to your job, your travels, or your climate, where do you turn? To your local health food store to pick up a well-made vitamin D supplement. You know you need it to be healthy but where does it fit in regards to boosting testosterone? It doesn’t want to brag or anything but it’s extremely important to the production of testosterone.[13]

    Vitamin D, a steroid hormone, is essential for the healthy development of the nucleus of the sperm cell and helps maintain semen quality and sperm count. Vitamin D also increases levels of testosterone, which may boost libido. In one study, overweight men who were given vitamin D supplements had a significant increase in testosterone levels after one year.”



    DIM can be derived from ingesting cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and cabbage.

    I have already mentioned 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, also called DIM. This vegetable-based Aromatase Inhibitor is available in supplement form. As an Aromatase Inhibitor, DIM ensures that testosterone does not convert into estrogen which in turn may help you increase testosterone.

    D-Aspartic Acid

    This amino acid has been shown to enhance your body’s natural production of growth hormones, including testosterone. [14]


    Increase Testosterone through Exercise

    Strength Training

    You don’t need to perform a hardcore workout program in order to support healthy testosterone levels. Studies show that men who engage in weekly resistance training saw a dramatic jump in testosterone levels. In one study, men utilized the Nautilus cardio equipment followed by total muscle group exercises. They only used three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions. The result was an explosion in total testosterone levels. [15]

    Focus on compound movements such as the squat, deadlift, and bench press to activate the greatest number of muscle groups at one time. This will also help with fat burning and muscle building.

    High-Intensity Interval Training

    H.I.I.T. has been the center of attention in the industry since a number of studies have confirmed its superiority to traditional low-intensity, long-duration training programs. H.I.I.T. involves performing a series of exercises one after another with no rest in between. You complete each exercise once, take a break, then begin again focusing on completing the entire circuit. One of the benefits of this type of training is that it does increase testosterone levels. Blood tests in several studies confirmed that men who performed high-intensity interval training were found to have higher levels of testosterone. [16]

    How to Increase Testosterone: Lifestyle

    Intermittent Fasting

    Before I delve into how to properly fast to increase testosterone levels, I want to establish why you need to start fasting. Intermittent Fasting is a new and highly popular fitness trend that is gaining a lot of ground due to its proven science. Studies show that Intermittent Fasting provides a number of incredible benefits including fat burning and muscle building. Intermittent Fasting has also been shown to dramatically increase a man’s natural testosterone and growth hormone levels. [17] The easiest Intermittent Fasting method to follow is the Lean Gains[18] system:

    Lean Gains: The 16-hour fast

    • Choose a start time. (8:00 p.m. is popular because it makes fasting easier)
    • You will not ingest any calories for 16 hours. (Beverages that are calorie-free are okay)
    • Your end time will be 16 hours later. (12:00 p.m. the following day if you started at 8:00 p.m. the previous night)
    • You have an 8-hour feeding window.
    • Focus on clean and whole-food options.

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    Get Some Sleep

    Most men are sleep-deprived these days, which could be taking an important toll on your manhood. Fact: Our body makes all the testosterone we need while we are sleeping (yes, that’s the reason for the morning erections), then it is only logical to assume that getting more and better sleep will have a positive effect on your testosterone levels.

    In one study, researchers at the University of Chicago found that young men who slept less than five hours a night for one week had lower testosterone levels than when they were fully rested. [19] The drop was typically 10-15%.

    Not only does sleep increase testosterone, but it also helps manage cortisol, a stress hormone that has been shown to decrease testosterone levels when present in high amounts.

    You should also be paying attention to the quality of your sleep and make sure you get a good, deep sleep every night. Maintain the room dark and quiet; avoid caffeine in the evenings when possible; and relax as much as you can before going to bed (this is not the time to get a cold shower unless you plan to get naughty with your girl).

    Have Sex

    Hands down, the favorite way of all men to boost their testosterone, having sex is a fun and easy way to increase T-levels. The simple act of thinking and preparing for sex was enough to spike testosterone levels in several studies. One study published in Physiology & Behavior showed that testosterone levels were at a peak before AND after sex. [20] This is a vast contrast to the old myth about women being bad for sports performance. (Sorry, Rocky.) Case in point: Include having sex as a part of your workout routine to increase testosterone. It’s for your health!

    Watch porn (in moderation)

    Hell, yeah! It has been clinically proven that porn images can increase testosterone. Watching just five minutes of explicit images or videos may substantially increase your testosterone levels. There are so many ways in which a female can increase testosterone in men. Did you know that just talking to an attractive girl may raise your testosterone by as much as 30%? Porn has a similar effect, and it peaks 60-90 minutes after the film. As a matter of fact, just by being sexually aroused your testosterone levels will rise.

    When watching explicit videos or images is not feasible, you may turn to sexual visualization. If you think about sex and play an explicit and detailed movie in your head, your testosterone production may increase too.

    Although some scientists point out that the increase in testosterone is short-lived, I think that, when combined with other methods, it may result in a dramatic change. More on that later.

    Beware of misuse of this method though, as too much porn might in fact have the opposite effect. Moderation is the key.

    Take a cold shower

    There are indeed many benefits to a cold shower. Cold showers have been proven to improve blood circulation, mood, and immune system, and may even burn more calories (yes, it may help you reduce that beer belly, but I won’t get into that now). Perhaps less usually mentioned is the fact that a good cold shower could vastly increase testosterone production. And the good part is, this testosterone increase is not just during the shower itself, it may last throughout the day.

    So if there is a habit that you start picking on, it should be to not turn on the heater in the shower ever again. I have been doing this myself for the past year, and it has made a HUGE difference in my life. Every morning after my cold shower I am so pumped up that I feel like going to work sprinting instead of taking the car. I have to confess that sometimes it’s too difficult to jump in cold water right away, but at least before finishing off, I turn down the heater as much as I can.

    For those of you who can’t stand a cold shower, there is still an alternative. Before the steroids era, Russian powerlifters knew very well that icing their testicles can increase testosterone production. Although this might sound plain stupid, there is an actual biological explanation for it. You probably noticed that when cold, the scrotum contracts, bringing your testicles closer to your body, and when too warm, the scrotum expands, separating the testicles from your body. This is known as the cremasteric reflex, and it’s a natural way to keep your testicles at an optimal temperature for sperm production, which is, in fact, lower than your normal body temperature. It is known that colder temperatures are better for sperm production, and many people also think that it is associated with testosterone production. Since icing your scrotum on a daily basis is probably not the optimal solution, a more convenient way to lower your testicles’ temperature would be to use cold water after a shower. If you can’t stand cold water in your whole body, at least try it in your intimate parts.

    Rub your balls

    Does rubbing your balls increase testosterone? It appears so. While the research on this topic is thin, many people swear by it. Testicular massage might help with blood flow and keep your balls colder, which as we have seen before may help to increase testosterone production.

    If you want to give testicular massage a try, there are some video tutorials that lay out the technique clearly, such as this one:

    Sexual Health: Testicle Massage | Ramel Rones

    Manage stress

    When we are stressed, we produce a stress-related hormone called cortisol. In small doses, cortisol is fine and even beneficial, but when cortisol levels are high for prolonged periods of time, it may cause a lot of damage. One of the effects of high cortisol levels is reducing testosterone production. When cortisol is high, testosterone is low. The opposite is also true. When testosterone is high, cortisol is low. So from now on, work on keeping your cortisol levels low by lowering your stress.

    Managing stress is very important, not just for your testosterone but for your health in general. The added benefit of good stress management is better sleep, so you see how things start linking together. Here are some techniques that may help you manage stress efficiently:

    • Meditation[21]
    • When you start to feel stressed, take a walk or do any distracting activity (hint: watch porn?)
    • Practice deep breathing every now and then
    • Do regular exercise

    There are also a bunch of nutrition tips that may help you reduce cortisol. For example, reducing sugar, taking anti-oxidants, drinking green tea, etc.


    You don’t have to fall victim to the symptoms of low testosterone. By learning how to increase testosterone naturally, you may take a stand and reclaim your manhood by making simple changes in your day-to-day life. Make low testosterone levels a thing of the past. You’ll be amazed at how you feel after you begin actively changing your lifestyle and dietary choices. Supplements are the icing on the cake as they support your body’s natural ability to produce testosterone. Before you know it, you’ll feel happier and stronger. You’ll be having more sex than before. Most importantly, you’ll be yourself again.

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    References   [ - ]


    Medicine Net Site. (n.d.). Medical Definition of Testosterone. Retrieved from


    McMillen, M. (Reviewed 2016, August 31). Low Testosterone: How Do You Know When Levels Are Too Low? Retrieved from WebMD web site


    Mogri, M., Dhindsa, S., Quattrin, T., Ghanim, H., & Dandona, P. (2013) Testosterone Concentrations in Young Pubertal and Post-Pubertal Obese Males. Clinical Endocrinology, 78(4):593-9. doi: 10.1111/cen.12018


    Freedman, D. S., O’Brien, T. R., Flanders, W. D., DeStefano, F., & Barboriak, J. J. (1991). Relation of serum testosterone levels to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other characteristics in men. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis: A Journal of Vascular Biology, 11(2):307-15. Retrieved from


    Rajoria, S., Suriano, R., Parmar, P. S., Wilson, Y. L., Megwalu, U., Moscatello, A., … Tiwari, R. K. (2011). 3,3′-diindolylmethane modulates estrogen metabolism in patients with thyroid proliferative disease: A pilot study. Thyroid, 21(3):299-304. doi: 10.1089/thy.2010.0245


    Fanciulli, G., Dettori, A., Demontis, M. P., Anania, V., & Delitala, G. (2004). Serum Prolactin Levels After Administration of the Alimentary Opioid Peptide Gluten Exorphin B4 In Male Rats. Nutritional Neuroscience, 7(1):53-5. DOI: 10.1080/1028415042000194630


    Talbott, S. M., Talbott, J. A., George, A., & Pugh, M. (2013). Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. Journal of the International Society Sports Nutrition, 2013;10: 28. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-28


    Ambiye, V. R., Langade, D., Dongre, S., Aptikar, P., Kulkarni, M., Dongre, A. (2013). Clinical Evaluation of the Spermatogenic Activity of the Root Extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in Oligospermic Males: A Pilot Study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013:571420. DOI: 10.1155/2013/571420


    Mayo Clinic web site. (2017, October 24). Zinc. Retrieved from


    Netter, A., Hartoma, R., & Nahoul K. (1981). Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and sperm count. Archives of Andrology, 7(1):69-73. Retrieved from


    Smartbodyz Site. Avena Sativa (Green Oats) Extract, Benefits, Sex Drive Support. Retrieved From


    Peak Fitness Site. (2012, July, 17). 9 Body Hacks to Naturally Increase Testosterone. Retrieved from


    Pilz, S., Frisch, S., Koertke, H., Kuhn, J., Dreier, J., Obermayer-Pietsch, B., … Zittermann, A. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 43(3):223-5. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1269854


    Pampillo, M., Scimonelli, T., Bottino, M. C., Duvilanski, B. H., Rettori, V., Seilicovich, A., Lasaga, M. (2002). The effect of D-aspartate on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, GABA and dopamine release. Neuroreport, 13(17):2341-4. DOI: 10.1097/00001756-200212030-00034


    Craig, B. W., Brown, R., & Everhart, J. (1989). Effects of progressive resistance training on growth hormone and testosterone levels in young and elderly subjects. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 49(2):159-69. Retrieved from


    Hackney, A. C., Hosick, K.P., Myer, A., Rubin, D. A., & Battaglini, C. L. (2012). Testosterone Responses to Intensive Interval Versus Steady-State Endurance Exercise. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 35(11):947-50. DOI: 10.1007/BF03346740


    Ho, K. Y., Veldhuis, J. D., Johnson, M. L., Furlanetto, R., Evans, W. S., Alberti, K. G., & Thorner, M. O. (1988). Fasting Enhances Growth Hormone Secretion and Amplifies the Complex Rhythms of Growth Hormone Secretion in Man. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 81(4): 968–975. doi: 10.1172/JCI113450


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    Leproult, R. & Van Cauter, E. (2011). Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men. JAMA, 305(21):2173-4. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.710


    Dabbs, J. & Mohammed, S. (1992). Male and Female Salivary Testosterone Concentrations Before and After Sexual Activity. Physiology & Behavior, 52(1):195-7. Retrieved from


    Turakitwanakan, W., Mekseepralard, C., & Busarakumtragul, P. (2013). Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Serum Cortisol of Medical Students. Journal of The Medical Association of Thailand, 96 Suppl 1:S90-5. Retrieved from